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Full-chain online game with tens of thousands of words (Part 1): The Beginning and Dark Forest.

02-23 16:17
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The field of fully on-chain gaming has just entered its nascent stage, and Dark Forest is one of the earliest and most central representatives in this field.
Original Title: "Thousands of Words and Ink, Exploring the Peak of Blockchain Gaming through Dark Forest and Loot: Full-Chain Gaming"
Original Author: Kaspar, Mask Network

Special thanks to Loot Chinese community core member & evangelist, Loot veteran holder @Taylor Zhang, and Dark Forest active player, DF Archon core member @byeddy. Their guidance on the article and patient answers to the author's questions have given the author a clearer and deeper understanding of the two ecosystems. Grateful.

This topic has a total of 3 articles, this is the [First Part: The Beginning and Dark Forest] [Second Part: An Insight into the Loot Ecosystem] [Third Part: Insights from Dark Forest and Loot, and Future Possibilities]

 1. Introduction

The concept of blockchain games has existed for a very long time, and it can even be said that without the imagination of chain games, there would be no blockchain as we know it today.

After all, the seed of Ethereum, this towering tree, was planted by the evil centralized game's "raid" on players. That year, Warcraft nerfed the Warlock, which made a once bright-eyed and bushy-tailed Warlock boy cry and become a tearful person. From then on, the world of Warcraft lost a Warlock, and the world gained a V God, who became the light for countless people.

When we take two more steps forward in time, we can see that the starting point of the extremely important standard in the world of encryption, ERC-721, now comes from a game called CryptoKitty. It caused the first serious congestion on the Ethereum network and also inspired the emergence of the X2E pioneer Axie Infinity, ushering in a new era.

With the wealth effect brought by the NFT boom in 2021 and the development of the BSC ecosystem, many project parties have set their sights on the long-standing hot spot of games. The concept of blockchain games has been raised again, and the development of chain games has entered a seemingly rapid growth period.


However, as of today in 2023, have we realized our vision for blockchain games when faced with over 2,000 blockchain games, only 700,000 daily active users, and a plummeting market value? It's difficult to give a definite answer from this scene filled with X2Earn game corpses.

2. Fully On-Chain Game

 2.1 What is "GameFi"?

It is very difficult to discuss the reasons for their failure, as everyone has a different definition of success, and perhaps they have achieved their own success in some way. What everyone is more interested in is why they did not survive well. How can the gaming industry grow better on the soil of blockchain?

Going back to the beginning of the blockchain gaming industry, the term GameFi really started to gain popularity from a tweet by Andre Cronje, the founder of Yearn Finance, in September 2020. He found the idea of incorporating gamification mechanisms into the monetary policy system very interesting, which could change the environment of DeFi projects focused on trading (TradFi) at that time and make DeFi more game-like (GameFi).


Therefore, at that time, two approaches emerged:

One is the gamification of DeFi: combining DeFi and NFTs, with the routine still being staking for output, but with an NFT layer in between. For example, at the time, Aavegotachi and Meme were doing this. The other is the DeFi-ification of games: reducing the content of other parts of the game, strengthening the economic model, and moving game behavior closer to staking for output. This is also known as Play2Earn, which is essentially liquidity mining. The hottest example at the time was Axie Infinity.

Regardless of the approach, the core revolves around Fi, and the user group is always DeFi users with the goal of input and output.

However, Axie's explosive popularity has successfully attracted many game industry professionals and even players themselves. They feel that if a game like this can be made, they can do it too. As a result, GameFi has flooded the market, all claiming to be truly decentralized games, using the name of "Game" to attract everyone, and ultimately saying that there are only speculators in the blockchain.

Some of the people involved in these projects simply don't care, and most of those who do care have never really thought it through. GameFi was never about games from the very beginning. Gamification and games are fundamentally different in their underlying logic.

2.2 Classification of Blockchain Game Forms

If we briefly break down a game module, it can be roughly divided into three parts:

Narrative section: About the background of the game universe and the stories of the characters, in order to establish the players' motivation. Even simple casual games can have highly influential narratives, such as Angry Birds;  

Core game logic: The main interactive part of the player's content, including various elements and rules designed by the game engine, as well as the calculation and rendering of the game backend.  

Economic model: production, consumption, and logical connection of assets and currency, including the relationship with external currency (fiat currency).

 2.2.1 On-Chain Assets (OCA) Gaming

Most of the current blockchain games have mainly modified their economic models by putting currency and some assets on the chain, but the core game logic, computation, narrative, and governance are still centralized. In Jump Crypto's report, these games are referred to as On-Chain Assets (OCA) games.


On this basis, the act of putting currency and assets on the chain not only increases circulation efficiency, but its significance in other aspects may not be as great as we imagine. Centralized regulatory policies may also cause players' assets to be reduced to zero in an instant, and when the project party runs away, how much value is left in the so-called permanent assets in the players' hands?

2.2.2 Optional Cosmetic Mints, OCM

There is another pattern that is even less associated with blockchain but is still used by some games. These patterns are often used by early traditional games that want to enter web3 in a very short period of time.

In the OCM model, everything is similar to traditional web2 games, including the centralized management of assets and currency issuance. However, players can mint certain assets they hold in the game into NFTs and put them on the blockchain for free circulation. At the same time, the game operator may also sell some rights or functional permissions in the form of NFTs.


The above two types of games can be referred to as blockchain games, but they are obviously not decentralized blockchain games. Therefore, as more and more people understand this situation, more and more attention is being focused on true decentralized games: full-chain games.

2.2.3 Fully On-Chain Games (FOC)

Full-chain game refers to putting all the behavior interactions and target states of the game on the chain, that is, the core game logic and asset economy model are processed through the blockchain, using the blockchain as the game server, and all player operations are completed through interaction with smart contracts. Even the game's narrative and governance are decentralized through DAO, in order to achieve a truly decentralized game.


Currently, the field of full-chain gaming is just in its infancy, and some very interesting games have emerged, such as MuMu from @Conquest, and Tropology's MuMu, Treaty from @0xCurio, 0xMonaco from Paradigm, including the once very popular Wolf Game and so on. Of course, the two big mountains that cannot be avoided in this field are still Dark Forest and Loot.

3. Full-Chain Titans: Dark Forest

The inspiration for Dark Forest comes from the famous science fiction novel "The Dark Forest" in the "Three-Body" series. It is the first fully on-chain incomplete information game.

As a space MMORTS game, it can accommodate thousands of players to explore, build and conquer in a randomly generated infinite universe, while all players' actions and statuses are updated on the chain but not disclosed to others.

3.1 Background & History

The originator and founder of Dark Forest is @Gubsheep, who happened to attend a conference on zero-knowledge proofs and was impressed by Liu Cixin's dark forest theory. This inspired him to create a "dark forest in the world of encryption" using zero-knowledge proofs. (Note: The Mask team once helped Brian contact the copyright owner of the Three-Body series, Youzu Interactive, and gave him a signed copy of Liu Cixin's Three-Body.)

At the beginning, this was just a very experimental and even playful idea. After all, as a high-frequency interactive application, games face huge challenges in the blockchain environment at that time and even now. Not to mention applying the nascent zero-knowledge proof to such a complex system. No one ever thought that Dark Forest not only realized this concept, but also became a milestone in the history of blockchain.

The main members of the early Dark Forest team were Gubsheep, @Alan, @Ivan, and @Moe.


The team officially launched the first test version v0.3 of the game on August 7, 2020, which was deployed on the Ropsten test network of Ethereum. Players need to obtain early invitation codes to participate in the game. The test version will be settled and deleted after one week. According to the points obtained, players will be ranked, and a prize pool of 1024 DAI will be set for the top 15 players, with the first place receiving a reward of 256 DAI. Shortly after its launch, this version received a personal recommendation from V God.


With the growth of the community, more members and volunteers have joined, including @Scott Sunarto, @spencecoin.eth, @Andy and other community members who have made outstanding contributions to the development of Dark Forest.

On October 2, 2020, version v0.4 of Dark Forest was officially launched on the xDAI STAKE network. The number of players who can participate in this version is twice that of v0.3, and it uses Burner Wallet (a disposable wallet) and extends the opening time to 10 days. Similar to v0.3, players need to obtain an invitation code to participate, and there is also a prize pool of 1024 DAI allocated to the top 15 players on the final leaderboard.

Dark Forest's v0.5 version was launched on Christmas Day 2020, and the open time was extended to 14 days (2020/12/25 - 2021/01/08). This version added a very important plugin system and also introduced special NFTs that can be explored.

v0.6 version is the latest version of Dark Forest, which is divided into 5 rounds and spans 9 months. It has added many new features and game elements, and a very interesting "epic story" has happened.

3.2 Participation Method

Currently, the official v0.6 version of Dark Forest has ended and there is no news yet on the next round. Based on past versions, players can enter their email on the zkga.me website to join the invitation code waiting list. Players who earned points in the previous round of testing will receive an invitation code before the game starts. Players with extra invitation codes usually share them on Dark Forest's official Discord. Ordinary players can try their luck there.

But in addition to official rounds, players can also pay attention to community rounds organized by relevant communities, such as the earliest MarrowDAO's "For Pioneer" and dfDAO's "New Year Community Round".

In March 1st, 2022, the Dark Forest team launched the Lobbies system, which allows the community to quickly complete one-click hosting. Subsequently, communities and individuals, including 277DAO, have used the system to organize several rounds of community rounds.

And if you just want to experience the basic game operation of Dark Forest, you can go to the Lobbies on the Dark Forest official website or create a small universe in the Arena system developed by dfDAO. For relatively experienced programmers, you can use the DarkForest local version provided by ProjectSophon for experience.

3.3 Game Core Gameplay

As an RTS real-time strategy game, resources are the core of the game, and the most important resource is the energy of celestial bodies. Players complete the protection and invasion of celestial bodies by transmitting energy, and explore the entire randomly generated universe. During this process, players will try to obtain as many points as possible according to the rules, and their final score will determine their ranking and rewards.

Each round of the game has different scoring rules. Commonly, the total amount of resources obtained by the player is converted according to specific logic. There are also special rules, such as in v0.6.3, where the player's closest distance to the center of the universe is used for judgement.

In this section, only the interface and core elements of the game will be briefly introduced. For a more comprehensive and detailed understanding, we recommend reading MarrowDAO's "Incomplete Guide to the Dark Forest" and watching Spencecoin's video introduction on YouTube.

3.3.1 Core Elements

War Fog: The core of an incomplete information game, presented in gray areas. Players can place the exploration cursor in the designated area, and the cursor will explore based on the hash rate of the CPU or GPU.

天体:  (This content contains only HTML tags and Chinese characters, and does not require translation.)

As of the latest DF v0.6, there are a total of 5 types of celestial bodies: Planet, Spacetime Rip, Asteroid Field, Quasar, and Foundry. Each type has different functions, with planets usually being the main base, black holes used for extracting and transporting artifacts, asteroid fields producing silver mines, quasars serving as energy and silver mine storage, and foundries producing artifacts. Each type of celestial body has a level and attribute rank setting, with attributes divided into 7 categories:

 Energy 能量 [Attribute/Resource]: The current energy/maximum energy (e.g. 100/400) is displayed as a numerical value, which is the core resource in the game. It is the only consumption when defending, attacking, and transporting. After transferring energy to the target celestial body, if the energy value reaches greater than the target celestial body's (current energy x defense coefficient), the celestial body can be occupied.

 Sliver Mine [Attribute/Resource]: The current/maximum storage of silver mine (e.g. 0/100) is displayed as a numerical value, which is also a core resource in the game. It is a necessary consumable when upgrading planets, and will be counted towards points when transported to the black hole for withdrawal.

 Energy Growth [Attribute]: Except for Quasar, all celestial bodies will continuously generate energy over time based on this rate and the current energy ratio, until the energy limit of the celestial body is reached.

Sliver Growth 银矿产出速率 [Attribute] : The rate at which silver mines produce silver ore;

Defence Defense [Attribute] : Belongs to the percentage coefficient, representing how much energy attack can be resisted by the current energy value. If the current energy is 200 and the defense is 300, it can resist energy attacks up to 600. If the defense is 50, it can only resist energy attacks up to 100.

Speed Transmission Speed [Attribute]: Determines the transfer speed of resources;

 Range Range [Attribute]: In the dark forest, the transmission of energy will decay with distance. This value represents the maximum distance at which the transmission energy decays to zero.


神器为具有强大能力的一种特殊 NFT (ERC-721) 道具,仅能从 Foundry 铸造厂 或是二级交易获得,有一次性的和可重复使用的两种类型,目前包括 Spaceship 在内共有 9 种神器 (神器 Spaceship 在 v0.6.5 被移除,变成了新的设定); 

The artifact is a special NFT (ERC-721) item with powerful abilities. It can only be obtained from the Foundry or through secondary transactions. There are two types of artifacts: disposable and reusable. Currently, there are a total of 9 artifacts, including Spaceship (which was removed and replaced with a new setting in v0.6.5).


In the final round of the DF v0.6 competition, the official added the setting of spaceships. Players are born with 5 different types of spaceships, each of which can bring impressive bonus effects to celestial bodies.

The basis for determining the player's ranking is composed of the energy and silver ore quantity of all celestial bodies occupied by the player, except for v0.6.3.

 3.3.2 Interface

Login Page

Users will first see a command-line style login interface when they enter the official website.

However, users only need to fill in the corresponding selection number to complete the creation of the wallet. The created wallet will store the private key in the browser's memory.

If you need to change your browser or computer, you need to export your private key and import it again on the new device.


Game Interface

After completing the login process, players will enter into an initial interface, with the central focus being the mother star that the player has been randomly assigned to.

The attribute information mentioned earlier is located in the red box in the lower right corner, and there is also information about the celestial category and owner below;

The red circle in the upper left corner indicates the player's current score.

The code feed on the right side is a record and feedback of all actions, which allows you to see whether the actions have been successfully recorded on the chain.

And if you zoom out your view, you can see the gray fog of war covering the area outside the blue range, along with the cursor exploring one grid at a time;

The game officially begins here, and players can complete the first energy transfer by holding down the mother star and dragging the mouse to the target planet they want to occupy.


3.3.3 Simple Game Process

Dark Forest is a very free and open MMO strategy game, and each round of the game mechanism will have slight changes, so players need to freely use their imagination to build in-game or out-of-game tactics. (Yes, you can completely go to various communities to deceive each other to win LOL)

However, generally speaking, the early stage of the game is a period of resource accumulation. During this stage, players usually install their preferred plugins and expand their vision to search for suitable planets in the black area of Deep Space outside the blue Nebula region as early bases. They continuously strengthen their base network while searching for artifacts to increase their strength.

With the foundation laid in the early stages, one can develop different tactical deployments according to their own style. Whether you are an exploratory player who yearns for the vastness of the universe, a magical artifact merchant looking to make some quick cash, or an aggressive player advocating for struggle, there is ample room to showcase your skills.

Here I recommend an article shared by @xiangcai.eth, a member of MarrowDAO, titled "Personal Strategy Insights on Dark Forest", which would be a great reference for new players.

And if you want to learn about larger-scale wars, you can check out this battle recorded by spencecoin, a war between two top players, Ner0nzz (ranked 2nd in v0.6.1) and 0x000da (ranked 7th in v0.6.2), fought under privately agreed rules in a cosmic battle. Ner0nzz also wrote an article from his perspective to explain the entire battle.

3.4 Dark Forest Why is it dazzling

Previously, we provided a definition of full-chain games and gave a brief introduction to Dark Forest. However, why is Dark Forest so important? Despite its seemingly rough and simple appearance, why has it become a name that cannot be avoided in the process of delving into the world of encryption or on-chain gaming? This requires an understanding of what Dark Forest has actually achieved:

3.4.1 Technical Aspect: FOC + zk-SNARK

全链上 Fully On-Chain, FOC
Fully On-Chain, FOC

Before Dark Forest, the feasibility of full-chain games has always been a conceptual assumption because games are different from other applications, especially when it comes to realizing multiplayer real-time online games, which have high sensitivity to network latency and high requirements for interaction.

For example, in MMORPG or MOBA games, a player may have more than 10 actions per second. Unlike regular applications that only interact with the system, these actions involve not only the system but also other players who are currently interacting. Each action requires immediate feedback to advance the game, which is clearly impossible on the Ethereum network, which had an average of only 12-15 TPS at the time.

And all games need to be put on the chain, which means that these interactive programs need to be deployed in the form of smart contracts. This poses great challenges for the selection of game types and the design of game logic.

Dark Forest is the first project to implement this conceptual idea, deploying all game rules and logic in the form of contracts on the chain, so that the state of players and the universe will be updated on the chain in real time after any interaction. Therefore, even today, Dark Forest can still be considered one of the most complex applications in the entire blockchain.

zk-SNARK Implementation for Incomplete Information Games

Among the types of games, if they are classified according to the level of information held by the participants, they can be divided into complete information games and incomplete information games. The difference is whether the participants can fully grasp all the information of each other. The most typical case in complete information games is chess, because the chessboard is public, so the participants make decisions on the same information basis; while the typical case in incomplete information games is Texas Hold'em, in addition to the five cards on the table, players also have their own two hole cards, which increases the challenge of decision-making.

In network electronic games, the most typical element of incomplete information games is the fog of war, which achieves information asymmetry by obscuring the field of vision. However, this method is almost impossible to implement in the former blockchain, because once all game interaction logic is chained, players' interaction content and status will also be updated to the chain, becoming a transparent and searchable state, so the fog of war loses its meaning.


However, Dark Forest is the first to use the zero-knowledge proof algorithm zkSNARK, which hides player interaction information, making incomplete information games on the blockchain feasible, while also enriching the application scenarios of zk technology and the possibilities of full-chain games.

3.4.2 Experience Level: A completely free, open and highly combinable gaming ecosystem that fully adheres to the principles of encryption growth

The model of open-source full-chain games endows Dark Forest with a very important feature, which is "Permissionless Interoperability".

Dark Forest is essentially an Ethereum smart contract, like some kind of protocol or rule. This first means that it is no longer limited by a specific client (Client Agnostic), and anyone who is capable can create a front-end client with their preferred visual form to call the parameters of the back-end contract. At the same time, this also means that any address can interact with it, whether it is a person, a robot, or another smart contract behind the address. This not only expands the boundaries of game strategy, but also gives rise to a thriving plugin ecosystem.

In this ecosystem, players spontaneously combine, build, and experiment with various things and gameplay, forming an organic community. The things created during the process completely exceed the official expectations, such as the trading markets for artifacts, celestial bodies, and planets, as well as the combat AI, etc. The emergence of these plugins adds more game purposes and gameplay, allowing more types of players to participate. The launch of the Lobby system and the development of the on-chain engine even release the rules, allowing players to freely set the rules of the universe to carry out the game.

This open and highly combinable attribute undoubtedly greatly expands the boundaries of game possibilities, allowing game players themselves to participate in the construction of the game experience, rather than relying solely on the official team.

3.5 Dark Forest ecosystem

As mentioned above, with the development of Dark Forest, ecology has become a very important existence, and it can even be said that there is nothing official to do after the deployment of core rules/contracts. Just as they position themselves, they are like scientists in a laboratory, setting up the growth environment of the culture dish and waiting quietly for the free development and evolution of the microbial community. Here, a brief description of some of the community and plugin ecology with valuable information will be provided. If you want to fully understand it, it is highly recommended to participate in the entire ecology personally to experience it:

3.5.1 Community Ecology

Dark Forest:  

Dark Forest is first and foremost an official community, belonging to the concept of a nurturing vessel and an ecological square. Apart from the release of specific activities or announcements, as well as daily problem-solving, there are relatively few operational activities.

 Project Sophon: 

Project Sophon is a US team in the encryption industry that firmly does not consider itself a DAO organization. They highly recognize the concept and vision of Dark Forest and have close cooperation with the core team, becoming an integral part of the Dark Forest ecosystem. They have strong technical capabilities, focusing on the technical construction of the infrastructure layer. They have written a Dark Forest local library that allows users to start a game on or off the chain.


Orden_GG is a very hardcore Ukrainian gaming organization with high levels of coding ability and gaming technology. They have won first place for four consecutive rounds in version v0.6 and are also high-quality builders within the ecosystem, with strong action and execution capabilities. They have built a trading market for artifacts and added liquidity pools. In addition, they are core players of Aavegotichi and have even created an open-source client for the game.

 D_F DAO: 

D_F DAO is an early-stage DAO primarily composed of Americans that was established during version 0.6. It is an organization that places great emphasis on innovative gaming experiences and has excellent development capabilities. In the Dark Forest universe, it has created many interesting things, including the Stellar Colossus of Sacrifice flow (an intelligent contract that allows members to contribute their star systems to the contract and win collectively) and the modified version of Dark Forest, Dark Forest Arena (a MOBA-style DF competitive game), among others. It is also good at organizing and trying out new strategies in the game. Overall, it has good brand promotion and operation and is a very vibrant community in Dark Forest.


MarrowDAO|GuildW is a Chinese-speaking DAO composed of Chinese people who are very active in assisting the expansion and promotion of the Dark Forest ecosystem, especially within the Chinese-speaking community. MarrowDAO has produced many high-quality articles and strategy sharing within the organization, and also has impressive development capabilities, developing many plugins including artifact trading markets and GPU mapping tools. It was also the first organization to hold a community round in the entire Dark Forest ecosystem. At that time, there was no Lobby system, so the community had to modify the client and contract code on their own, which required a lot of work and technical expertise.


277DAO is a Chinese-language community focused on blockchain games, specializing in organizing events. After the launch of the Lobby system in Dark Forest, they held 5 consecutive rounds of Dark Forest community events. They are also one of the main evangelists in the Chinese-speaking community, translating and writing many tutorials and materials related to Dark Forest, as well as developing some interesting plugins.

 DF Archon:

 DF Archon is a small developer team that focuses on developing games on the entire blockchain. In the Dark Forest ecosystem, they mainly develop and integrate many plugins, and encapsulate the tool functions in DF into a more user-friendly package, creating DF-Gaia to help developers and players use it better. They also created the first celestial bounty system in the Dark Forest game, DF-ARTEMIS.

 P DAO: 

P DAO is a relatively mysterious small-scale Chinese organization that appeared in the v0.6.5 round. Unlike large-scale DAOs that focus on plugin usage and group expansion strategies, P DAO focuses more on efficient collaboration among team members. Through a strategy of full-process voice communication and shift rotation, P DAO achieved excellent results with 7 members occupying the top ten in v0.6.5.

 3.5.2 Plugin Ecology

Plugins are a very important part of the entire Dark Forest industry. Currently, there are 55 open source plugins that have been officially reviewed and included in the plugin library. Here, only a summary introduction will be provided.

By using the purpose, we can roughly divide plugins into three categories:


Due to the relatively simple native game interface of Dark Forest, many plugins have emerged to help present information better. Some commonly used ones include: visualization of data (Heat Map, Mini Map, Voyage Time which can calculate transmission time between planets, Map Filter Export developed by DF Archon, etc.), highlighting or marking specific targets (two must-have plugins developed by DF Archon, Peace Dove and Highlight Friends, as well as Highlight Buffs which highlights planet buffs, etc.).


Data Visualization


Highlighting or marking of specific targets

Trading Market:

It mainly matches players to exchange different resources, adding new game motivation for players, including but not limited to:

Artifact Market of D_F DAO: Artifact Market, Dark Sea of Marrow DAO: Dark Sea
Coordinate bounty market: NightMarket developed by 0xSage and xyz_pierre using zk technology: NightMarket, and Broadcast Market developed by Project Sophon: Broadcast Market
Planet bounty market: Artemis developed by DF Archon: Artemis


Plugins of this type are usually used more frequently, mainly by scripts to help players simplify the originally complex and cumbersome operations, and improve execution efficiency: resource-related (two sets of artifact capture and management Hunt Artifacts, Artifactory, one-click distribution of silver mines Distribute Silver, one-click collection of resources Centralize Resources, etc.), battle-related (one-click capture of surrounding planets Crawl Planets, automatic repeat attack Repeat Attack, one-click coordinated attack Simultaneous Attack, and even direct war against players Wage War, etc.)


Resource Related



除了官方审核收录的开源插件外,更有大量玩家或社区自主开发的插件或客户端,由此而构建出了丰富的游戏体验和多样性的玩法,甚至有社区玩家开发一个能自己玩 Dark Forest 的 AI


In addition to the open source plugins officially approved and included, there are also a large number of plugins or clients developed by players or communities, which have created rich gaming experiences and diverse gameplay. There are even community players who have developed an AI that can play Dark Forest by themselves.

This open ecosystem model allows Dark Forest to have a broader possibility than traditional centralized games, where players can freely build game experiences and combination tools around the core rules of the universe, which expand infinitely downwards and enrich with flesh and blood.


"Medium: A Comprehensive Look at the Loot Ecosystem"

Next: Insights from Dark Forest and Loot, and possibilities for the future


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