原文标题：《 详解「超级链」概念：Base 只是 Optimism 的小「野心」 》
Original author: 0xfF5A
Moni, Odaily Planet
Although the blockchain industry has been in development for more than a decade, Ethereum will need to reach Internet-level scale if it is to compete with the Web2 giants and dominate the software space, but there is currently no scale-up solution or L1 to support it. At the same time, multichaining has its own problems. Ethereum L2 has reached the limits of user experience, but it is nowhere near global scale adoption or enough to support a decentralized network.
The industry needs a paradigm shift in order to support the hundreds, thousands, and tens of thousands of blockchains of the future. And this is exactly what it is. Optimism The original intention of launching "Superchain" Superchain.
Horizontal scalability requires multiple blockchains, which traditional multi-chain architectures cannot meet. By using L2 to form a multi-chain ecosystem, each chain can be treated as a commodity, or "interchangeable computing resource." This approach to commercializing blockchains enables developers to build cross-chain applications without introducing systemic risk. And you don't incur a lot of overhead when you deploy your application on a new chain. The concept of blockchain itself can become abstract, at which point the interoperable blockchain network can be regarded as a unit, that is, a "super chain".
A "hyperchain" is an L2 network, and an OP Chain (OP Chain) is a single chain in a hyperchain, regardless of its specific attributes, if formally managed by the Optimism Collective, is considered an OP chain and is therefore part of a hyperchain, sharing security, communication layers, and open source technology stacks with each other. But unlike multi-chain designs, OP chains are standardized and intended to be used as interchangeable resources, which will allow developers to build applications that target the entire hyperchain and abstract away the underlying chain that runs the application.
In order to upgrade Optimism to hyperchain, the following attributes must be included:
Share L1 blockchain, purpose: To provide a total ordering of transactions across all OP chains.
A shared bridge for all OP chains. Purpose: To have standardized security attributes for OP chains.
Low cost OP chain deployment, purpose: to deploy and trade on OP chain without paying the high cost of L1 transaction.
Configuration options for an OP chain. Purpose: To enable an OP chain to configure its data availability provider, sorter address, etc.
Secure transactions and cross-chain messages with the goal of enabling users to securely migrate assets between OP chains.
Once Optimism satisfies these attributes, it can be considered a hyperchain.
Optimism has expressed the optimism that Bedrock needs to be followed by the launch of an initial "superchain" that can be deployed and upgraded with many other blockchains using the same bridge. Bedrock introduces SystemConfig contract, can be used directly L1 Smart contracts define L2 and place all of L2's data on the hyperchain, including generating unique chains. ID, block gas limit Once the data has been deployed, Optimism creates a "chain factory" deployment configuration for each chain and all other required contracts where all chain data can be synchronized based on block L1. The Optimism node can also conclusively sync any optimism given a single L1 address plus a connection to L1. OP chain.
In the "hyperchain" bridging security model, security (i.e., effectiveness) and activity (i.e., resistance to censorship) can be guaranteed. Security is guaranteed by a proof system and activity by the ability to submit transactions directly to L1. The combination of security and activity means that if an exception occurs to the OP Chain collator, a user can always submit a transaction to L1, who migrates their use to a new OP Chain with a properly functioning collator.
There are still at least six pain points for the "hyperchain" to solve before the fully scalable blockchain vision can be realized.
Pain point 1 : Withdrawal claims depend on a trusted set of chain provers
Potential solution: The trusted set of chain provers could be replaced by the introduction of permission-free certificates, however the challenge of full chain proofs is that there is no fallback mechanism if they are broken. To ensure that nothing ever goes wrong, you can introduce multiple verification systems that provide security through redundancy.
Pain point 2 : Cross-chain transactions are slow
Potential solutions: Optimism of a failproof can be a source of optimism for the user experience, as it can be safely completed by waiting for a challenging period. This means that if your challenge cycle is long, users will have to wait a long time to migrate their assets from one OP chain to the next. Proof of validity solves this problem. Proof of validity has no challenge period and therefore provides instant withdrawals from one OP chain to the next. However, proof of validity is often implemented using zero-knowledge proof (ZKP), which is expensive and error-prone. It can take years to actually produce ZKP enough to be a major cross-chain communication protocol, so a hybrid of multiple proof systems can be introduced to enable developers to provide low-latency bridging for low-value assets. Provide high latency bridging for high value assets.
Pain point Asynchronous cross-chain transactions, breaking the ability to execute atomic cross-chain transactions such as flash loans
Potential solution: By using a shared sorting protocol on both OP chains, synchronous cross-chain messaging can be introduced and atomic cross-chain interaction enabled. By combining low-latency inter-L2 messaging with shared sorting, complex transactions such as cross-chain flash loans can be executed, and even further, an EVM abstraction can be created where individual smart contracts (or even separate storage slots) exist on different chains.
Pain point : The transaction is not scalable after it is published to the hyperchain, because the transaction data must be submitted to the capacity limited L1
Potential solutions: Today, L1 data availability (DA) is not large enough to support Internet-level scale, but extends the amount of data accessible to the OP chain by using the Plasma protocol, which enables alternative DA providers to supplement the more limited L1 DA. The generic Plasma protocol extends beyond L1 because Plasma data is only downloaded by users who are interested in the transaction data, and every Ethereum node downloads all transaction data from L1. Due to hashing's ability to reduce arbitrarily sized data to a constant size commitment and its ability to process transaction data hashing in parallel, Plasma DA enables the near perfect horizontal scalability of the data promise, meaning that massively scalable applications such as games or social media can be placed on the Plasma chain.
Pain points 5 and 6 There is no simple framework to build using OP chain extensible dApp, there is no simple wallet to manage the assets and Dapps on the OP chain
Potential solutions: Tools that can build on top of core hyperlink protocols, such as content addressable smart contracts, which allow the contract to have the same address across all chains; Cross-chain contract state management standards - Create standards for how smart contract state migrates from one chain to another, enabling developers to shard their applications across multiple chains; Superchain RPC Endpoint - Create a single RPC endpoint where users can send their Superchain transactions, regardless of which OP chain they intend to use, enabling users to avoid constantly switching their network. With the powerful multi-chain dApp framework, deploying cross-chain DApps may be as easy as deploying Dapps for single chains.
In the evening of February 23rd, crypto trading platform Coinbase announced the launch of its OP Stack-based Ethereum layer 2 Base test and in collaboration with Optimism. In fact, Base is a brand new L2 built on top of OP Stack.
Coinbase will join OP Labs as the core developer, contributing to the Optimism Collective's mission to extend OP Stack's leadership as the strongest public good, Base will also return a portion of its transaction fee income to the Optimism Collective financial pool to further its vision of a sustainable future with "impact = profitability."
Optimism and Coinbase The combination of Optimism and Coinbase certainly starts the development of Superchain optimism. In the short term, this collaboration strives to upgrade Optimism Main, Base, and other L2 optimism into an initial superchain structure with shared bridging and ordering. More L2 is bound to be incorporated into the "super chain" ecosystem in the future; In the long term, "hyperchains" can evolve into a vast network that maximizes interoperability, shares decentralized protocols, and standardizes its core primitives.
Expansion, of course, is king.