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Market Capitalization Liquidity Crisis Liquidity Provider Liquidity Ratios Listing Mainnet Library Lightning Network Linux Liquidity Know Your Customer (KYC) Latency Law of Demand Layer 2 Ledger Leveraged Tokens InterPlanetary File System (IPFS) IOU Isolated Margin Issuance Keccak Initial Coin Offering (ICO) Initial Exchange Offering (IEO) Initial Public Offering (IPO) Integrated Circuit (IC) Interoperability HODL Honeypot Iceberg Order Immutability Index Hash Hash Rate Hashed TimeLock Contract (HTLC) High-Frequency Trading (HFT) Hackathon Hacker Haha Money Printer Go Brrrrr Halving Hard Cap Genesis Block GitHub GM (Good Morning) Golden Cross Gossip Protocol Gwei Fungibility Futures Contract Gas Gas Limit General Public License Formal Verification Fraud Proof Fren Full Node Fundamental Analysis (FA) Flashbots Flippening Forced Liquidation Forex (FX) Fork Fiat Fill Or Kill Order (FOK) Finality First-Mover Advantage (FMA) Fiscal Policy Flappening Fakeout Falling Knife Fan Tokens Fear Of Missing Out (FOMO) Fear, Uncertainty and Doubt (FUD) ERC-721 ETF Ethereum Classic Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM) Exchange Efficient Market Hypothesis (EMH) Encryption Enterprise Ethereum Alliance (EEA) ERC-1155 ERC-20 Divergence Diversification Do Your Own Research (DYOR) Dollar Cost Averaging (DCA) Double Spending Eclipse Attack Design Flaw Attack Diamond Hands Difficulty Difficulty Bomb Decentralized Indexes Decryption Deep Web Delisting Depeg Decentralized Application (DApp) Decentralized Autonomous Cooperative (DAC) Decentralized Autonomous Organization (DAO) Decentralized Exchange (DEX) Decentralized Finance (DeFi) Custody Daemon Danksharding Dead Cat Bounce Crypto ETFs Crypto Protocol Crypto Winter Cryptocurrency Cryptography Consumer Price Index (CPI) Contango and Backwardation Copy Trading Counterparty Risk Credentials Cross-Chain Bridges Colocation Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) Compound Interest Confirmation Time Confluence Cipher Circulating Supply Cloud Coin 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Proof of entrusted rights and interests Detailed explanation of market placers and market takers What is a 51% attack? What is inflation? What is a dust attack? What is BNB? What is phishing? What is keylogging universal security principles Pyramids and Ponzi Schemes Explained A Beginner’s Guide to the Bitcoin Lightning Network Delayed proof of work What is a node? Moving averages explained Hard fork and soft fork The difference between blockchain and Bitcoin An explanation of liquidity The history of blockchain Byzantine Fault Tolerance What is a cryptocurrency? Burn proof explained Sybil Attack What is Proof of Stake (PoS)? What is Proof of Work (PoW)? What is token burning? What is the RSI indicator? Bollinger Bands Indicator Explanation Authoritative proof explanation What is Trust Wallet(TWT)? Binance Two-Factor Authentication (2FA) Guide What is a market order? What is a limit order? Withdrawal whitelist address What is a limit, take profit, and stop loss order? How blockchain works How to deposit money on Binance Anti-phishing code setting guide How to Withdraw Cash on Binance Convert Dust in Binance What is the blockchain consensus algorithm? Proof of Work (PoW) vs Proof of Stake (PoS) Advantages and Disadvantages of Blockchain On Game Theory and Cryptocurrency What is fiat currency? 2008 financial crisis What is Ripple? What is tulip fever? What is a multi-signature wallet? What is Ethereum Plasma? Why public Wifi is unsafe The history of cryptography What is a DoS attack? Blockchain use case: supply chain What is a replay attack? What is public key cryptography? What is an Initial Coin Offering (ICO)? What is a fractional reserve system? What is quantitative easing (QE)? Blockchain use case: charity Blockchain application case: medical insurance What is Stochastic RSI? What is hyperinflation? What ensures the security of blockchain? What is social engineering? Blockchain application cases zk-SNARKs and zk-STARKs explained Binance Chain Explorer User Guide Binance Chain: Things to avoid on the test network Detailed explanation of hybrid PoW/PoS consensus mechanism What are forward and futures contracts? MACD indicator explanation What is technical analysis? Symmetric encryption vs asymmetric encryption Blockchain application case: Internet of Things (IOT) What is symmetric encryption? Detailed explanation of Ichimoku Cloud What is an options contract? What is leveraged trading? Common scams on mobile devices What is PGP? Lease Proof of Stake (LPOS) Consensus Algorithm Blockchain use case: electronic identity Binance Margin Trading Account Setup Guide Detailed explanation of atomic swap Application cases of blockchain: government governance What is a cryptocurrency wallet? Detailed explanation of Ethereum Casper What is hashing? What is a perpetual futures contract? Device fingerprinting: How were you exposed? What is a 2-for-1 order? What is a digital signature? Blockchain application case: transfer and remittance What is Mimblewimble? Detailed explanation of financial risks Detailed explanation of Wyckoff analysis method market cycle psychology What are leading and lagging indicators? Detailed explanation of peer-to-peer network What is equity pledge? What is a smart contract? Detailed explanation of trend lines A Beginner’s Guide to Segregated Witness (SegWit) An introduction to cryptoeconomics A Brief Guide to the Parabolic Indicator The Ultimate Guide to Binance Futures Trading A risk management guide for beginners The Complete Beginner’s Guide to Decentralized Finance (DeFi) Blockchain use case: Gaming How blockchain technology will impact the banking industry The Ultimate Guide to Key Proof Day What is the difference between private chain, public chain and consortium chain? A Beginner’s Guide to Earning Passive Income Using Digital Currencies Insights from a Professional Cryptocurrency Trader - Nik Patel Quantum computers and cryptocurrencies Asset allocation and diversification explained What is an Eclipse Attack? Introduction to Dow Theory Introduction to Dark Pools Introduction to Web 3.0 and its importance Detailed explanation of double spending problem Blockchain and artificial intelligence-detailed explanation of future technologies Beginner's Guide to K-Line Charts Introduction to Confidential Transactions Introduction to Elliott Wave Theory Analyzing Bitcoin 12 types of K-line charts commonly used in technical analysis Blockchain Scalability - Sidechain Technology and Payment Channels A guide to digital currency collectibles and non-fungible tokens (NFTs) SafePal S1 – Hardware Wallet Review 2022 Trezor Model T – 2022 Hardware Wallet Review Trezor On – Hard Wallet Review 2022 Cobo Vault – Hardware Wallet Review 2022 Why you should use a hardware wallet 5 basic indicators used in technical analysis Blockchain use case: prediction markets What is Ethereum? Ledger Nano S – Hardware Wallet Review 2022 Ledger Nano X – Hardware Wallet Review 2022 KeepKey – Hardware Wallet Review 2022 CoolWallet S – Hardware Wallet Review 2022 Detailed explanation of Decentralized Autonomous Organization (DAO) What is selfish mining Token Mixing and CoinJoin Interpretation "Fibonacci Retracement Study Guide" Bitcoin and Stock-to-Flow Ratio Model Beginner’s Guide to Classic Chart Patterns How to calculate position size in trading A brief discussion on "Black Monday" and the stock market crash Detailed explanation of mining pools A Beginner’s Guide to Security Tokens Is Bitcoin a store of value? 7 simple steps to protect your Binance account Detailed explanation of dollar cost averaging (DCA) 5 Common Cryptocurrency Scams and Prevention Strategies Detailed explanation of the basic principles of support and resistance A Beginner’s Guide to Binance Leveraged Token (BLVT) Detailed explanation of volume weighted average price (VWAP) A Beginner’s Guide to Cryptocurrency Trading Strategies How to Safely Store Digital Currency 7 common mistakes in technical analysis (TA) What is fundamental analysis (FA)? How to trade delivery futures on Binance A must-read for newbies: A complete guide to cryptocurrency trading What is currency? What is the Golden Cha and the Dead Cha? Binance API Series Part I – Spot Trading with Postman Introduction to Bitcoin Script What do Schnorr signatures mean for Bitcoin? Detailed explanation of Merkel tree and Merkel root What is end-to-end encryption (E2EE)? A Beginner’s Guide to Cryptocurrency Day Trading What is a short squeeze? Introduction to ERC-20 Tokens What does short selling mean in financial markets? What is a bull market? What is a Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG) in cryptocurrency? How does the economy work? A Beginner’s Guide to Swing Trading Cryptocurrency What is a bear market? Tokenizing Bitcoin in Ethereum Explained What exactly is liquidity mining in decentralized finance (DeFi)? 12 Terms Cryptocurrency Traders Must Know What is cryptocurrency short-term trading? How to use MetaMask What are flash loans in DeFi? What is Compound Finance in Decentralized Finance (DeFi)? What is SushiSwap and how does it work? How to create technical analysis indicators on TradingView What is Uniswap? How does it work? What is risk-reward ratio and how to use it PancakeSwap Guide A Guide to Cryptocurrency Fundamental Analysis Binance Dual Currency Investing Quick Start Guide Seven indicators that decentralized finance (DeFi) investors must know What is Dogecoin? What is an automated market maker (AMM)? What is Binance Smart Chain? What are cookies? What is a decentralized exchange (DEX)? What is impermanent loss How to Calculate Return on Investment (ROI) Learn about the different order types Connect MetaMask wallet in Binance Smart Chain How to use a Bitcoin ATM How to use the Bitcoin Blockchain Explorer What is Alpha Homora in DeFi? Six Binance Smart Chain (BSC) Metrics You Must Know Introduction to Binance Bridge What is arbitrage trading? An introduction to Ethereum 2.0 and its importance Getting Started with BakerySwap What is (YFI)? What is a trading journal and how to use it What is Curve Finance in Decentralized Finance (DeFi)? BurgerSwap(BURGER) Guide How to spot a scam in decentralized finance (DeFi) What is Chainlink (LINK)? 8 common Bitcoin scams and strategies to prevent them What is backtesting? What is an elastic supply token? What is MakerDAO (DAI)? What is Taproot and how does it benefit Bitcoin? Who is Satoshi Nakamoto? What is Polkadot (DOT)? What are the liquidity pools in the DeFi field? How do they work? Detailed explanation of cryptocurrency market capitalization What is Swipe Token (SXP)? What are Spark (FLR) and Flare Network? what is interest rate What is Facebook Libra (Diem)? What is an Initial Exchange Offering (IEO)? What is Tether (USDT)? What is Aave (AAVE)? How to backtest a trading strategy What is Cardano (ADA)? What is Basic Attention Token (BAT)? What are network effects? Review of Binance Academy’s major events in 2020 What is Filecoin (FIL)? Detailed explanation of Central Bank Digital Currency (CBDC) Beginner’s Guide to Binance Finance What is a wrapped token? What is VeChain (VET)? What is Tezos (XTZ)? What is OmiseGO (OMG)? Detailed explanation of Tendermint What is spoofing in financial markets? What is a Bitcoin ETF? What are blockchain transaction fees? Getting Started Guide to BNB Smart Chain (BSC) What is Axie Infinity (AXS)? Binance Beginner’s Guide How to recover digital currency transferred to the wrong network on Binance A quick guide to staking Binance Coin on Binance Smart Chain (BSC) How to make your own NFT How to withdraw BEP-20 tokens on Binance Smart Chain The top three NFT projects on Binance Smart Chain What is BETH and how to use it How to use Binance Chain wallet How to cancel or replace a pending Ethereum transaction Bitcoin Mining Guide How to invest in Bitcoin and altcoins What are Cryptopunks? Connect Trust Wallet wallet in BNB Smart Chain (BSC) What is "Decentraland" (MANA)? 7 things you need to know about NFTs What is cryptocurrency market sentiment? What is the Ethereum London Hard Fork? "Seven Major NFT Use Cases" What is Solana (SOL)? Detailed explanation of bid-ask spread and sliding spread TradingView Beginner’s Guide Getting Started with Binance NFT Market Why is Bitcoin valuable? What is Synthetix (SNX)? What is Bitcoin Cash (BCH)? What is the Cryptocurrency Fear and Greed Index? What is Forex trading? How to use WalletConnect How is Binance Smart Chain different from Ethereum? What is Polygon (MATIC)? Comparison of custodial and non-custodial NFTs: What is the difference between the two? Best Cryptocurrency Wallets for BNB Smart Chain (BSC) How are cryptocurrencies taxed? What is the spot market and how is spot trading conducted? How to trade Bitcoin futures contracts How to Build a Balanced Cryptocurrency Portfolio How to trade cryptocurrencies responsibly Bitcoin price history overview An introduction to QuickSwap concepts and how it works What is Avalanche (AVAX)? An introduction to the concept of NFT games and their operating principles What is KYC (Know Your Customer)? What is Anti-Money Laundering (AML)? What are Binance Fan Tokens? What is Etherscan and how to use it? Why has Loot become a popular project in the NFT gaming community? What is a cryptocurrency card and how it works What is the Metaverse? How to connect Ledger Nano to Binance Smart Chain (BSC)? Introduction to NFT blind box and its operating principle How to create your own cryptocurrency? How to use Ronin wallet? Beginner’s Guide to Binance Lite What is "Play and Earn" and how to cash out? What is Illuvium (ILV)? What is Shiba Inu Coin (SHIB)? What is Cosmos (ATOM)? What is Smooth Love Potion (SLP)? What is the Ethereum Name Service (ENS)? What is Sandbox (SAND)? BscScan concept and usage analysis What is the Boring Ape Yacht Club (BAYC)? What is a memecoin? What is NFT staking and how does it work? 6 international giants who are creating the Metaverse What is Litecoin (LTC)? What is a nested trading platform? Why must we avoid it? 4 Blockchain and Cryptocurrency Projects in the Metaverse What is Audius (AUDIO)? 7 major technologies that promote the development of the Metaverse Binance Academy 2021 Year in Review An introduction to DeFi 2.0 and its importance What is a non-fungible token (NFT) virtual land in the Metaverse? What is an initial game release (IGO)? What is the Ethereum Arrow Glacier Upgrade? How to use Polygon Bridge? What is an IDO (Initial Decentralized Exchange Offering)? How to add the Avalanche consensus protocol to MetaMask? How to add Polygon to MetaMask? What is Wrapped XRP (wXRP) and how does it work? How to buy land in the Metaverse? What is BNB automatic destruction? What is a cryptocurrency airdrop? Cryptocurrency Payments Explained Cryptocurrency Lending and How It Works How to use Avalanche wallet? What is Algorand (ALGO)? What is Layer 1 in blockchain? Analysis of the concept and usage of SolScan How to create a DAO? Wrapped Ethereum (WETH): Concept and Packaging What is Porto Fan Token (PORTO)? What are Yield Guild Games (YGG)? What is the NEAR Protocol (NEAR)? What is leverage in cryptocurrency trading? What is Harmony (ONE)? What is smart contract security audit? How to trade the hammer candlestick pattern What is the difference between custodial and non-custodial wallets? What is WOO Network(WOO)? What is COTI? What is Ankr (ANKR)? What is THORChain(RUNE)? What is Immutable X(IMX)? What is ApeCoin (APE)? What is Qtum (QTUM)? The concept of GameFi and how it works The 10 most expensive NFTs sold to date How to add Arbitrum to MetaMask? Six Top Dual Currency Investment and Trading Strategies How to add Fantom to MetaMask? What is NEXO (NEXO)? What is a decentralized application (DApp)? What is a cryptocurrency faucet? What are Liquidity Pool (LP) tokens? What are governance tokens? Blockchain Layer 1 and Layer 2 expansion solutions What is the difference between cryptocurrencies and stocks? What is XRP Ledger (XRPL)? What is PAX Gold (PAXG)? What is SKALE (SKL)? What is STP (STPT)? What is an investment DAO? What is the Bitcoin (BTC) Leading Index? What is a blockchain bridge? What is Kyber Network (KNC)? What is tokenomics? Why is it important? What is Band Protocol (BAND)? What is UMA? What is Lisk (LSK)? A comprehensive introduction to the Ethereum merge and upgrade What is MANTRA (OM)? What is BitTorrent (BTTC)? What is Livepeer (LPT)? What is Soul-Bound Token (SBT)? Take-profit and stop-loss points and their calculation methods What is Lido (LDO)? What are BurgerCities (BURGER)? Can there be multiple metaverses? 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Binance Academy 2022 Year in Review What is DeFi’s real rate of return? What are dynamic NFTs and how do they change? The concept of zero-knowledge proof and its impact on blockchain What is Hashflow (HFT)? What is Hooked Protocol (HOOK)? Ethereum Shanghai upgrade concept and its impact What are token standards? What is Layer 0 in blockchain? What is an API key and a guide to using it securely What is EOS? What is peer-to-peer trading and how is it used? What is the time value of money? What is Maximum Extractable Value (MEV)? How AI Impacts DeFi: Promises and Delusions What is formal verification of smart contracts? How to set and achieve personal financial goals What are permissioned and permissionless blockchains? Trading Psychology: How to Avoid Emotional Trading How do DeFi protocols bring revenue and why is it important? Four self-research methods on DeFi liquidity mining The difference between optimistic aggregation and zero-knowledge aggregation What is BNB Greenfield? 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A Guide to Cryptocurrency Fundamental Analysis
2023-11-18 22:50 Update


Cryptocurrency fundamental analysis delves into existing information about a financial asset. For example, you can research the use cases for a financial asset, the number of people using it, or the team behind the project.

The goal of conducting research is to determine whether an asset is overvalued or undervalued. Afterwards, positions can be traded based on personal insights.


Trading highly volatile assets like cryptocurrencies requires certain skills. Choosing strategies, understanding the overall picture of trading, and mastering technical analysis and fundamental analysis are all practical means to continuously accumulate experience.

Technical analysis can draw on certain professional knowledge from traditional financial markets. Many cryptocurrency traders use the same technical indicators used for forex, stock, and commodity trading. No matter which asset is traded, tools such as the Relative Strength Index (RSI), Exponential Moving Average (MACD), and Bollinger Bands can be used to predict market behavior. Therefore, these technical analysis tools are also extremely popular in the cryptocurrency space.

While cryptocurrency fundamental analysis uses methods similar to traditional markets, these tried and tested tools are not necessarily ideal for valuing cryptocurrency assets. In order to implement sound fundamental analysis (FA) in the cryptocurrency space, we should understand where its value lies.

In this article, we will explain how to carefully choose the indicators that are suitable for you.

What is fundamental analysis (FA)?

Fundamental analysis (FA) is a method for investors to determine the "intrinsic value" of an asset or business. By studying a range of internal and external factors, an investor's primary goal is to determine whether an asset or business is overvalued or undervalued, and then develop a buying and selling strategy based on this information.

Technical analysis can also provide extremely valuable trading data, but its analysis results vary from person to person. Technical analysis (TA) users believe that future price movements can be predicted based on an asset's past performance. They mainly achieve their goals by observing K-line charts and studying common indicators.

Traditional fundamental analysts generally rely on business indicators to determine what they see as true value. Metrics used include earnings per share (i.e. how much profit a company can earn per share issued), or price-to-book ratio (how investors value a company based on its book value). For example: Analysts will analyze and compare multiple companies in a certain niche market to select which company has more investment prospects.

For a comprehensive understanding of fundamental analysis, please read "What is Fundamental Analysis?" 》

Problems in fundamental analysis of cryptocurrency

We cannot accurately analyze the traditional business Evaluating cryptocurrency networks. Products like Bitcoin (BTC) that focus on decentralization are closer to commodities. However, even for centralized cryptocurrencies (such as those issued by organizations), traditional fundamental analysis (FA) indicators do not provide sufficient information.

Therefore, we should turn our attention to other frameworks. The first step is to identify strong indicators. "Strong" means that the indicator is not easily manipulated. For example, Twitter followers or Telegram/Reddit users are not good indicators, after all, it is easy to create fake accounts or buy followers on social media.

It is important to note that one measurement alone cannot provide a complete picture of the network being evaluated. We can look to see if the number of active addresses on the blockchain continues to surge, but that by itself doesn’t provide much valuable information. For all we know, it's likely the same person sending money back and forth to themselves using a new address each time.

In the following chapters, we will explore three types of cryptocurrency fundamental analysis (FA) indicators: on-chain indicators, project indicators and Financial Metrics. The indicators listed above are not comprehensive, but they are enough to lay a solid foundation for subsequent creation of indicators.

On-chain indicators

On-chain metrics illustration

On-chain indicators are indicators that can be observed based on data provided by the blockchain. We could run nodes ourselves for the desired network and then export the data, but this process can be expensive and time-consuming. If you only consider investment and are unwilling to waste time or resources, the above method is even more inappropriate.

A more direct solution is to extract information from professional investment decision-making information websites or APIs. For example, CoinMarketCap’s Bitcoin on-chain analysis provides a wealth of information. Other sources of information include data charts from Coinmetrics or project reports from Binance Research.

Transaction count

Transaction count is a good way to measure network activity. You can see how activity changes over time by graphing the quantities over a specified period of time (or using a moving average).

However, please note that you should be cautious when referring to this indicator. As with active addresses, we cannot be sure if it is just the same group of people transferring funds to each other between wallets, causing the amount of activity on the chain to be skewed.

Transaction value

Please do not confuse it with transaction quantity. Transaction value represents the total value of transactions over a period of time. . For example: if a total of 10 Ethereum transactions are sent on the same day, each worth $50, the daily trading volume is $500. The unit of measurement can be a legal currency such as the US dollar, or the protocol's native unit - Ethereum (ETH).

Active addresses

Active addresses are blockchain addresses that remain active within a specified time range. There are many ways to calculate active addresses. The common method is to calculate the number of senders and receivers of each transaction within a set period of time (such as days, weeks, or months). Some methods track the entire time range, meaning they calculate cumulative values over time.

Paid handling fees

In contrast, the paid handling fees of some cryptocurrency assets are more revealing. From this, we can see the user’s demand for block space. We can think of this as auction bidding: users bid against each other to get their transactions into the block in time. Transactions with higher bids will be confirmed (mined) first, while those with lower bids need to wait.

For a cryptocurrency whose issuance continues to decline as planned, this is a metric worth studying. Mainstream Proof of Work (PoW) blockchains will provide block rewards. Part of the block reward consists of block subsidies and transaction fees. Block subsidy will decrease periodically (such as events such as Bitcoin halving).

As time goes by, mining costs continue to increase, and block subsidies gradually decrease, so transaction fees increase as a matter of course. Otherwise, miners will exit the network due to operating losses, which will also affect the security of the blockchain.

Hash rate and the amount staked

Today, blockchain Various consensus algorithms are used, each algorithm has its own exclusive mechanism. These algorithms play an indispensable role in ensuring network security, and in-depth study of relevant data can optimize the results of fundamental analysis.

In proof-of-work cryptocurrencies, hash rate is often used to measure whether the network is functioning properly. The higher the hash rate, the more difficult it is to launch a 51% attack. Attracted by low overhead and high returns, miners flock to mining. Over time, the hash rate continues to increase. Conversely, if it becomes unprofitable to secure the network, miners will go offline ("miner surrender"), causing the hash rate to drop.

Factors that affect the total cost of mining include the current price of the asset, the number of transactions processed, and the fees paid. Of course, the direct costs of mining (electricity and computing power) are also key considerations.

Staking (such as in Proof of Stake) is another game theory related concept similar to Proof of Work (PoW) mining. However, the two mechanisms work differently. The basic idea of staking is that users participate in block verification by staking their assets. Therefore, we can study the number of pledges in a given period of time to determine whether investment interest is high (or lack thereof).

Project indicators

Project metrics illustration

On-chain metrics focus on observable blockchain data, while project metrics take a qualitative approach, looking at factors such as the performance of the team (if any), white papers, and upcoming roadmaps.

White Paper

It is strongly recommended that you read the project white paper before investing. This technical document gives us an overview of the cryptocurrency project. A good white paper will clarify the goals of the network and, ideally, provide insight into:

  • Technology used (is it open source?)
  • Use cases designed to satisfy
  • Roadmap for upgrades and new features
  • Currency or token Coin supply and distribution plan

In addition to referring to this information, it is best to discuss the project. What do others think? Are there any red flags? Are the goals realistic?


If there is a specific team behind a cryptocurrency network, the track record of its members can reveal this. Whether the team has the necessary skills to carry out the project. Have the members previously participated in successful investment projects in the industry? Is their expertise sufficient to achieve the stated goals? Have they been involved in any questionable projects or scams?

What would the developer community look like without a team? If the project has a public GitHub, check its number of contributors and activity. A coin that continues to evolve is definitely more attractive than a coin that hasn’t updated its repository in two years.


Detailed and authoritative white papers can give us an understanding of the target use cases of cryptocurrency assets. An important task at this stage is to identify the project's competitors and the legacy infrastructure it seeks to replace.

Ideally, this information should be subject to fundamental analysis carefully and thoughtfully. Some assets appear to be extremely attractive, but if measured by the same metrics as similar crypto assets, are likely to reveal shortcomings compared to other assets.

Tokenomics and initial distribution

The purpose of some projects to create tokens is Find solutions to problems. This does not mean that the project itself is not viable, just that the tokens associated with it may be useless. Therefore, it is important to be clear about the actual utility of the token. Questions raised by this include whether this utility can be widely recognized by the market, and how valuable the market thinks this utility is.

In this regard, another important factor to consider is how the funds are initially distributed: through an Initial Coin Offering (ICO) or Initial Exchange Offering (IEO), or through user Earn money from mining? If the former, the white paper should clarify how much capital is retained by the founders and team, and how much is available to investors. If the latter is the case, we can look at evidence of asset creators pre-mining (mining the network before the asset comes out).

Pay attention to how funds are allocated to understand whether there are risks. For example: If the vast majority of funds come from only a very small number of individuals and organizations, we may determine that these individuals and organizations will eventually manipulate the market, and therefore determine that the investment is risky.


Financial indicators

Financial metrics illustration

In fundamental analysis, information such as the asset's current trading method, past transaction prices, and liquidity can all be used as a basis. However, there may be other metrics worth watching in this category that relate to the economics and incentives of crypto asset protocols.

Market capitalization

The market capitalization (or network value) is equal to the circulating supply multiplied by At current price. Market capitalization essentially represents the hypothetical cost of purchasing each unit of a cryptocurrency asset (assuming there is no slippage).

Market capitalization itself is somewhat misleading. In theory, it is very easy to issue 10 million units of useless tokens. If one of the tokens traded for $1, the market value would be as high as $10 million. This valuation method is obviously distorted. Without a strong value proposition, a token simply cannot gain widespread market acceptance.

It should also be noted that we are unable to determine the actual circulating volume of a particular cryptocurrency or token. Tokens are destroyed, keys are lost, and funds are forgotten. On the contrary, if you can filter out tokens that are no longer in circulation, you can roughly estimate the circulating supply.

Even so, market capitalization is still a widely used indicator of network growth potential. Some cryptocurrency investors believe that "small-cap" tokens have better growth potential than "large-cap" tokens. Other investors believe that large-cap tokens have stronger network effects and have a higher chance of success than smaller-cap tokens that are less established.

Liquidity and Volume

Liquidity is a measure of the difficulty of buying and selling an asset. Liquid assets can be easily sold at the desired trading price. A related concept is also a liquid market, that is, a market where numerous ask and offer prices compete fiercely (resulting in a very small spread between bids and offers).

In illiquid markets, we may not be able to sell assets at a "fair" price. This shows that no buyer is willing to trade at present and can only face two options: lower the asking price or wait for market liquidity to increase.

Volume is an indicator that helps determine liquidity. This metric can be measured in a number of ways, showing the value of transactions over a specific period of time. Charts typically show daily volume (in native currency units or USD).

Being familiar with the concept of liquidity is helpful in fundamental analysis. Ultimately, liquidity serves as a measure of market interest in potential investments.

Supply mechanisms

From an investment perspective, the supply mechanism of a currency or token is the Very interesting properties to the eye. Models like the Stock-to-Flow (S2F) ratio are indeed becoming increasingly popular among Bitcoin enthusiasts.

The maximum supply, circulating supply, and inflation rate can all be used as the basis for decision-making. Over time, some tokens will reduce the production of new coins, further attracting investors who believe that demand for new coins will exceed supply.  

On the other hand, many investors believe that strict supply caps will actually do more harm than good in the long run. They are worried about users hoarding tokens and hindering the circulation and use of tokens. Another critical voice believes that the reward ratio for early users is unbalanced. After all, only a stable inflation policy can protect the rights and interests of new users.

Fundamental analysis indicators, measurement indicators and tools

We regard measurement indicators as fundamental analysis indicators Quantitative data is sometimes used as qualitative data. Using these metrics alone often doesn't tell the full story of the problem. To gain a deeper understanding of the coin’s fundamentals, one should also look into the indicators.

Indicators usually refer to the combination of multiple measurement indicators through statistical formulas in order to analyze the relationship between each item. However, there is a lot of overlap between metrics and indicators, so the definitions of the two are not rigorous.  

While the number of active wallets has data value, it needs to be combined with other data to gain deeper insights. You can calculate the percentage of the total number of wallets based on the number of active wallets, or divide the token market value by the number of active wallets. The calculated value is the average amount held by each active wallet. Both data reflect network activity and user confidence in holding assets. We will explore this issue in depth in the next chapter.

Fundamental analysis tools can easily combine metrics and indicators. While raw data can be viewed using a blockchain explorer, an aggregator or dashboard can help save query time. Some tools allow users to select the required metrics and create their own metrics.

Combine metrics and create fundamental analysis (FA) indicators

Master the difference between metrics and indicators Finally, let’s explore how to combine the two to gain insight into the financial health of the assets under study. Why did you do this? As discussed in previous chapters, every metric has shortcomings. Furthermore, if you only focus on a series of numbers behind each cryptocurrency project, you are likely to miss a lot of key information. Consider the following:

Token A

Token B

Market capitalization

USD 100 million

USD 5 million

Transaction quantity ( 6 months)

20 million

40 million

Average Transaction Value ( 6 months)

USD 50

USD 100

Active address (6 months)



Taken alone, comparing the active addresses of the two products does not reveal any substantive information. We can only conclude that Token A has had more active addresses than Token B in the past six months, but this is not a comprehensive analysis at all. How does this number relate to market cap or number of transactions?

A more rigorous approach would be to create some ratio, apply it to some statistics of Token A, and then compare it to Token B with the same ratio applied strong>statistics for comparison. This way, instead of blindly comparing a single metric for each token, we create a set of criteria for independently evaluating tokens.  

For example, studying the relationship between market capitalization and transaction volume can yield more information than looking at market capitalization alone. We divide the market capitalization by the number of transactions and we get a ratio of 5 for Token A and 0.125 for Token B.

Looking at the ratio alone, Token B has a lower value and appears to have a higher intrinsic value than Token A. This means that, using market capitalization as a reference value, the number of transactions for Token B is much higher. Therefore, Token B seems to have greater utility, or Token A is overvalued.  

Please note: The above observations are simply examples of how to use the details to determine the big picture and should not be taken as investment advice. Without understanding the goals of the project and the functionality of the token, it is difficult to judge whether the low number of transactions for Token A is a positive development or a negative development.

Another similar ratio commonly used in the cryptocurrency market is the NVT ratio. The Network Value to Transaction Number Ratio was proposed by analyst Willy Woo and is regarded as the "price-to-earnings ratio of the cryptocurrency world." Simply put, it is calculated as market cap (or network value) divided by the number of transactions (usually represented on the daily chart).

Here is just a brief introduction to various practical indicators. Fundamental analysis should be a complete system for comprehensively evaluating a project. The more detailed data used, the more reliable the findings will be.

Key indicators and metrics of fundamental analysis (FA)

The market is filled with many available Analyze the indicators and metrics used. For beginners, we have selected a few of the most popular indicators for introduction. Each indicator can reflect limited problems, so multiple indicators should be combined for comprehensive analysis.

Network Value to Transaction Volume Ratio (NVT)

If you have heard of the stock analysis indicator “this "Yi Ratio", it is not difficult to understand the network value to transaction volume (daily) ratio indicator that provides similar analysis. The calculation is as simple as dividing the token’s market capitalization by its daily trading volume.

We use daily trading volume to represent the underlying intrinsic value of a token. The concept is based on the assumption that an item appreciates in value if the volume of liquid transactions in the market increases. If a token’s market capitalization rises while daily trading volume is low, the market may enter a bubble stage. Prices rise without a corresponding increase in underlying value. Conversely, if the coin price remains stable while daily trading volume increases, this situation signals a potential buying opportunity.

The higher the ratio, the greater the chance of a bubble. When NVT is higher than 90-95, it is the critical point for bubbles to appear. If the ratio decreases, it indicates that the cryptocurrency is becoming less overvalued.  

Market Value to Realized Market Value Ratio (MVRV)

What should you first understand before diving into this statistic? is the realized value of a cryptoasset. Market value (also known as "market capitalization") is equal to the total supply of a token multiplied by the current market price. The realized market is minus tokens lost due to wallet inaccessibility.  

Tokens stored in the wallet are valued based on the market price at the time of the last transfer. For example: If one Bitcoin was lost in a wallet in February 2016, its value would be approximately $400.

The market value to realized market value ratio (MVRV) metric can be calculated by simply dividing market capitalization by realized market capitalization. If the market capitalization is much higher than the realized market capitalization, the ratio is relatively high. A ratio above 3.7 indicates that the token is overvalued and traders can profit from trading, possibly triggering a sell-off.  

This number indicates that the token may currently be overvalued. The two large-scale Bitcoin sell-offs in 2014 (MRVR value is about 6) and 2018 (MRVR value is about 5) are the best evidence. If the value falls below 1, the market is undervalued. This is a good buying opportunity. Once the buying pressure increases, it will push the price up.

Inventory to flow ratio model

The inventory to flow ratio indicator is a measure of encryption A popular indicator of currency prices, often used when supply is limited. The model treats each cryptocurrency as a fixed scarce resource, similar to precious metals or gems. Investors use assets to save value when supply is known to be limited and no new sources have been discovered.

This indicator is equal to the total global circulating supply divided by the annual production of new coins. Taking Bitcoin as an example, data on its circulation and newly mined coins are widely available, making it easy to calculate ratios. The decline in mining revenue leads to an increase in the ratio reflecting scarcity, driving asset appreciation. Since Bitcoin’s reward halvings occur regularly, we can see the above happening during periods when new coins enter the market.

As you can see, the stock-to-flow ratio is an excellent indicator of Bitcoin price. Bitcoin’s price highly overlaps with the ratio’s 365-day average, showing a good match. Of course, this model also has some flaws.  

For example: The current stock-to-flow ratio of gold is about 60. That is, based on the current flow, it will take 60 years to mine the current supply of gold. In about 20 years, Bitcoin's ratio is expected to reach 1,600. This price prediction and market value will far exceed the current value of all the wealth in the world.  

After deflation, prices become negative and the inventory-to-flow ratio model will also be in trouble. The ratio is negative when the wallet key is lost and no new Bitcoins are produced. If observed in the graph, the stock-to-flow ratio first goes to infinity and then becomes negative.

To learn more about this model, read our Bitcoin to Stock-to-Flow Ratio Model guide.

Fundamental analysis tool example


Baserank is a cryptocurrency asset research platform that aggregates various information and comments from analysts and investors. Each review scores the cryptocurrency, and the platform takes the average to give the cryptocurrency an overall score (0 to 100). While some of the platform's premium reviews are only available to subscribers, free users can still view a comprehensive overview of reviews divided into sections, including team, utility, and investment risk. If you have limited time and want to get a quick overview of a project or token, an aggregation platform like Baserank is ideal. However, before investing, you must conduct in-depth research on the project that interests you.

Crypto Fees

It is not difficult to guess from the name, this The tool will list the fee information for each network in the past 24 hours or 7 days. This information serves as a simple indicator for analyzing blockchain network traffic and usage. Networks that are expensive are often in high demand.

However, we cannot just interpret this indicator at face value. To compete with other networks, some blockchains are initially built with low fees. In this case, it is recommended to combine this data with the number of transactions or other indicators to conduct a comprehensive analysis. For example: Coins with higher market capitalizations such as Dogecoin or Cardano have low transaction fees, so they rank lower in the overall rankings.

Glassnode Studio

Glassnode Studio presents a large number of chains in the operation panel on indicators and data. Like most other tools, the platform offers a subscription service. However, the free on-chain data it provides is detailed enough for amateur investors. You can easily find various information here, which is much more convenient than manually collecting information using a blockchain browser. The main advantage of Glassnode is that it provides a large number of indicator categories and subcategories for users to browse and review. Of course, if you are interested in the Binance Smart Chain project, the information provided here is very limited.

In order to easily combine metrics with technical analysis, Glassnode Studio also has built-in TradingView and all its charting tools. Investors and traders often consider a variety of analytical tools when making decisions. Glassnode’s one-stop service is indeed a plus and attracts many users.


When done correctly, fundamental analysis can provide insights into cryptocurrencies that technical analysis cannot match. When trading, accurately distinguishing market prices from the "real" value of the network is an excellent skill. Of course, technical analysis (TA) also has its advantages, providing information that fundamental analysis (FA) cannot predict. Therefore, many traders now use a combination of both methods.

Like many strategies, fundamental analysis (FA) is not one-size-fits-all. I hope you found this article informative and learned some of the factors you need to consider before buying or selling crypto assets.